1. Definition of a Vertebrate Animal.
An animal of a large group distinguished by the possession of a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes. Oxford Dictionary
Cephalopods are invertebrates with large, vertebrate-like central nervous system and are treated according to the rules for Vertebrate Animals.
3. Steps for vertebrate animal projects
4. Policy 4.2.2 Use of Vertebrate Animals and Cephalopods in Research
6. Animal Case Studies
7. Canadian Council on Animal Care - CCAC
8. Presentations on Animal Ethics by the National Ethics & Safety Committee
9. Resources for further study